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Fred D Ledley

Professor, Natural and Applied Sciences
Professor, Management
Professor, Department of Mangement, Bentley University
Diector, Center for Integration of Science and Industry
Professor, Natural and Applied Sciences, Bentley University
MD, Georgetown University, 1978
B.S. , University of Maryland, 1974
Office: Jennison Hall 126 | 781.891._2046 | fledley@bentley.edu
                       


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Bio

Dr. Ledley is an opinion leader in the integration of science, business, and education. He has extensive experience as a researcher, educator, entrepreneur, and executive in academia, industry, and government. He is an accomplished leader, with a record of managing successful research initiatives, start-up companies, and progressive academic change.

Teaching Interests

Science education for business students - how to best prepare business students for leadership in the technology-driven businesses of the future. Management of Technology - how businesses can best manage the burgeoning technological revolution and its challenges to business strategy, and operations. Futurism - how business practices are essential for realizing the potential of scientific discovery. Undergraduate research - how to engage business students in knowledge creation.

Research Interests

Understanding pathways for translational science. Advancing the translation of scientific discoveries to create public value. Integration of science and industry. Interdisciplinary education in science and business. Biotechnology. Drug development. Bioethics.

Consulting/Practice Interests

Translational science. Entrepreneurship. BIotechnology. Drug development. Business models and strategy. Management of Technology. Translational medicine. Science education.

Professional Links

http://www.bentley.edu/sciindustry
http://www.scienceandindustry.org
http://www.sputnikschild.com

Professional Memberships

American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Association of Colleges and Universities
American Medical Association
Council for Undergraduate Research
National Science Teachers Association
Academy of Management
Drug Information Association
American Medical Association
National Association for Research in Science Teaching
American Chemical Society
American Society for Human Genetics
Society for Pediatric Research

Awards and Honors

2014, Fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
2012, Outstanding Scholarly Contribution, Bentley University
2008, BEN Scholar (Bioscience Education Network) National Science Digital Library and American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2008-2010

Publications

Journal Articles
McNamee, L. M., Ledley, F. D. (2013). Assessing the history and value of Human Genome Sciences. . Journal of Commercial Biotechnology, 19 (4), 3-10. (link)

McNamee, L. M., Ledley, F. D. (2013). Making the biotech IPO work. Nature Biotechnology, 31, 969-970. (link)

Ledley, F. D., McNamee, L. M., Uzdil, V., Morgan, I. W. (2013). Why commercialization of gene therapy stalled; examining the life cycles of gene therapy technologies . Gene Therapy. (link)

McNamee, L. M., Ledley, F. D. (2013). Translational science in the biotechnology industry; the impact of technological maturity. PLoS ONE, 8 (12), 7. (link)

McNamee, L. M., Ledley, F. D. (2012). Patterns of technological innovation in biotechnology.. Nature Biotechnology, 30 (10), 937-943. (link)

Ledley, F. D., Holt, S. (2012). Learning Objectives and Content of Science Curricula for Undergraduate Management Education. Journal of Management Education. (link)

Ledley, F. D. (2012). Bridging the boundary between science and business through education. International Journal of Science in Society, 3 (3), 171-194. (link)

Ledley, F. D., Ndung'u, E. (2011). Use of genomic databases for inquiry-based learning about influenza. Journal of College Science Teaching (40), 70-76.

Ledley, F. D. (2004). Can DTC deliver the health benefits of genomics to the public?  DTC Perspectives .

Ledley, F. D. (2002). A Consumer Charter for Human Genetics. Nature Biotechnology (20), 767.

Ledley, F. D. (1999). Can Pharmacogenomics Make a Difference in Drug Development? Nature Biotechnology (17), 731.

Ledley, F. D., Housman, D. (1998). Why Pharmacogenomics? Why Now? Nature Biotechnology (16), 492-493.

Ledley, F. D., Ledley, T. A. (1998). Pharmacokinetic Considerations in Somatic Gene Therapy. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews (30), 133-150.

Ledley, F. D., Rosenblatt, D. S. (1997). Methylmalonyl CoA Mutase. Human Mutation (9), 1-6.

Ledley, F. D. (1996). Somatic gene therapy: applications in arthritis. Arthritis and Allied Conditions: A Textbook of Rheumatology..

Ledley, F. D. (1996). Pharmaceutical Approach to Somatic Gene Therapy. Pharmaceutical Research (13), 1595-1614.

Ledley, F. D. (1996). Our Study is Man (and Woman). Human Gene Therapy (7), 1193-1195.

Drennan, C. L., Matthews, R. G., Rosenblatt, D. S., Ledley, F. D., Fenton, W. A., Ludwig, M. L. (1996). Molecular basis for dysfunction of some mutant forms of methylmalonyl CoA mutase deductions from the structure of methionine synthase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (93), 5550-5555.

Ledley, F. D. (1996). Gene therapy in pediatric medicine. Advances in Pediatrics (43), 1-25.

Ledley, F. D., Anderson, W. F. (1996). Gene therapy for cardiovascular disease: an introduction.. Marcel Dekker, 467-485.

Adams, R. M., Wang, M., Crane, A. M., Brown, B., Darlington, G., Ledley, F. D. (1996). Effective cryopreservation and long term storage of primary human hepatocytes with recovery of viability, differentiation, and replicative potential. Cell Transplantation (4), 579-86.

Rosenblatt, D. S., Ledley, F. D. (1996). A Molecular Study of Methylmalonic Aciduria: Structure-Function Correlations. Bulletin Academy National Medicine (180), 1553-1563.

Ledley, F. D. (1995). When are genes investigational drugs? Expert Opinion in Investigational Drugs (4), 781-782.

Ledley, F. D. (1995). Non-viral gene therapies: the promise of genes as pharmaceutical products. Human Gene Therapy (6), 1129-1144.

Adams, R. M., Wang, M., Steffen, D., Ledley, F. D. (1995). Infection by retroviral vectors outside of their host range in the presence of replication-defective adenovirus. Journal of Virology (69), 1887-1894.

Yovandich, J., O'Malley Jr., B. W., Sikes, M., Ledley, F. D. (1995). Gene transfer to synovial cells by intra articular administration of plasmid DNA. Human Gene Therapy (6), 603-610.

Ledley, F. D. (1995). Gene transfer into the intestinal epithelium. Human Gene Therapy. . PubMed PMID: 8527472., Sep;6(9):1145-51..

Ledley, F. D. (1995). Assessing Risk (editorial). Human Gene Therapy (6), 551-552.

Ledley, F. D. (1995). After gene therapy: Issues in long term follow-up and care. Advances in Genetics (32), 1-16.

Abramowicz, M. J., Andrien, M., Dupont, E., Dorchy, H., Parma, J., Duprez, L., Ledley, F. D., Courtens, W., Vamos, E. (1994). Uniparental disomy of chromosome 6 involving the HLA region in a newborn with methylmalonic acidemia and diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Investigation (94), 418-21.

Ledley, F. D. (1994). The therapeutic promise of molecular genetics. Journal of Investigative Dermatology (103(5 Suppl)), 2-5.

Ledley, F. D. (1994). Somatic gene therapy. Inherited metabolic disease. Diagnosis and treatment (2nd), 429-438.

Stankovics, J., Andrews, E., Crane, A. M., Wu, C. T., Wu, G. Y., Ledley, F. D. (1994). Overexpression of human methylmalonyl CoA mutase in mice after in vivo gene transfer with asialoglycoprotein/polylysine/plasmid complexes. Human Gene Therapy (5), 1095-1104.

Ledley, F. D. (1994). Non-viral gene therapies. Current Opinion Biotechnology (5), 626-636.

Sikes, M., O'Malley, B. W., Finegold Jr., M. J., Ledley, F. D. (1994). In vivo gene transfer into rabbit thyroid follicular cells by direct DNA injection. Human Gene Therapy (5), 837-834.

Wilkemeyer, M. F., Andrews, E., Ledley, F. D. (1994). Genomic structure of murine methylmalonyl CoA mutase: evidence for genetic and epigenetic mechanisms regulating enzyme activity. The Biochemical Journal (296), 663-670.

O'Malley Jr., B. W., Adams, R. M., Sikes, M. L., Ledley, F. D. (1994). Gene transfer into human thyroid follicular cells. Laryngoscope (5), 837-44.

Ledley, F. D. (1994). Distinguishing genetics and eugenics on the basis of fairness. Journal of Medical Ethics (20), 157-164.

Ledley, F. D. (1994). Development in somatic gene therapy. Expert Opinion in Investigational Drugs (3), 913-921.

Ledley, F. D. (1994). Designing clinical trials of somatic gene therapy. Proceedings of the New York Academy of Sciences (716), 283-293.

Crane, A. M., Ledley, F. D. (1994). Cluster of mutations within methylmalonyl CoA mutase associated with mut- methylmalonic acidemia, intra-allelic complementation, and impaired adenosylcobalamin binding. American Journal of Human Genetics. (55), 42-50.

Qureshi, A. A., Crane, A. M., Matiaszuk, N. V., Rezvani, I., Ledley, F. D., Rosenblatt, D. S. (1994). Cloning and expression of mutations demonstrating intragenic complementation in muto methylmalonic aciduria. The Journal of Clinical Investigation (93), 1812-1819.

Lovejoy Jr., F. H., Ledley, F. D., Nathan, D. G. (1994). Academic Careers: choice and activity of graduates of a pediatric residency program. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association (54), 180-197.

Ledley, T. A., Ledley, F. D. (1994). A multicompartment, numerical model of cellular events in the pharmacokinetics of gene therapy. Human Gene Therapy (5), 679-691.

Shevell, M. I., Matiaszuk, N., Ledley, F. D., Rosenblatt, D. S. (1993). Varying neurological phenotypes among muto and mut patients with methylmalonyl CoA mutase deficiency. American Journal of Medical Genetics (45), 619-24.

O'Malley Jr., B. W., Ledley, F. D. (1993). Somatic gene therapy; methods for present and future. Archives of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery (119), 1100-1107.

O'Malley, B. W., Jr.Adams, R. M., Sikes, M. L., Ledley, F. D. (1993). Retroviral mediated gene transfer into canine thyroid using an ex vivo strategy. Human Gene Therapy (4), 171-177.

Wilkemeyer, M. F., Stankovics, J., Foy, T., Ledley, F. D. (1993). Propionate metabolism in cultured human cells after over expression of recombinant methylmalonyl CoA mutase: Implications for somatic gene therapy. Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics (18), 493-505.

Ledley, F. D. (1993). Prenatal Application of Somatic Gene Therapy. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America (20), 611-620.

Ledley, F. D. (1993). Hepatic gene therapy: present and future. Hepatology (18), 1263-1273.

Soriano, H. E., Lewis, D., Legner, M., Finegold, M., Ledley, F. D. (1993). Feasibility of hepatocellular transplantation via the umbilical vein in prenatal and perinatal lambs. Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy (8), 293-304.

Ledley, F. D., Lovejoy Jr., F. H. (1993). Factors influencing the interests, career paths, and research activities of recent graduates from an academic, pediatric residency program. Pediatrics (92), 436-441.

Andrews, E., Jansen, R., Crane, A. M., Cholin, S., MacDonall, D., Ledley, F. D. (1993). Expression of recombinant human Methylmalonyl CoA mutase in primary mut fibroblasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemical Medicine and Metabolic Biology (50), 135-144.

Cholin, S., Tonoki, H., Hansen, T., Ledley, F. D. (1993). Expression of recombinant human Glutathione Reductase in Eukaryotic Cells after DNA Mediated Gene Transfer. Biochemical Medicine Metabolic Biology (49), 108-113.

Ledley, F. D. (1993). Evolution and the Biologist's Daughter. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (36), 281-288.

O'Malley Jr., B. W., Ledley, F. D. (1993). DNA and viral mediated gene transfer in follicular cells: progress toward gene therapy of the thyroid. Laryngoscope (103), 1084-1092.

Ledley, F. D., Adams, R. M., Soriano, H. E., Darlington, G. J., Finegold, M., Lanford, R., Carey, D., Lewis, D., Baley, P., Rothenberg, S., Kay, M., Brandt, M., Moen, R., Anderson, W. F., Whittington, P., Pokorny, W., Woo, S. L. (1993). Development of a clinical protocol for hepatic gene transfer: lessons learned in pre-clinical studies. Pediatric Research (33), 313-320.

Sawada, T., Ledley, F. D. (1993). Correction of methylmalonyl CoA mutase deficiency in muto fibroblasts and constitution of gene expression in primary human hepatocytes by retroviral mediated gene transfer. Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics (18), 507-516.

Stankovics, J., Ledley, F. D. (1993). Cloning of functional alpha propionyl CoA carboxylase and correction of enzyme deficiency in PCCA fibroblasts. American Journal of Human Genetics (52), 144-151.

O'Malley Jr., B. W., Finegold, M., Ledley, F. D. (1993). Autologous orthotopic thyroid follicular cell transplantation: a surgical component of ex vivo somatic gene therapy. Otolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery (108), 51-62.

Ledley, F. D. (1993). Are contemporary methods for somatic gene therapy suitable for clinical applications? Clinical and Investigative Medicine (16), 78-88.

O'Malley Jr., B. W., Ledley, F. D. (1993). Applications of somatic gene therapy in head and neck surgery. Archives of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery (119), 1191-1198.

Soriano, H. E., Lewis, D., Legner, M., Brandt, M., Baley, P., Darlington, G., Finegold, M., Ledley, F. D. (1992). Use of DiI marked hepatocytes to demonstrate orthotopic, intrahepatic engraftment following hepatocellular transplantation. Transplantation (54), 717-723.

Adams, R. M., Soriano, H. E., Wang, M., Darlington, G., Steffen, D., Ledley, F. D. (1992). Transduction of primary human hepatocytes with amphotropic and xenotropic retroviral vectors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (89), 8981-8985.

Ledley, F. D. (1992). The quality of medical science. Clinical and Investigative Medicine (15), 513-517.

Ledley, F. D., Brody, B., Kozinetz, C., Mize, M. (1992). The challenge of follow-up for clinical trials of somatic gene therapy. Human Gene Therapy (3), 657-664.

Ledley, F. D. (1992). The application of gene therapy to pediatric practice. International Pediatrics (7), 7-15.

O'Malley Jr., B. W., Sikes, M. L., Adams, R. M., Finegold, M. J., Ledley, F. D. (1992). Somatic gene therapy targeted to the thyroid: DNA mediated and viral mediated gene transfer in animal models. Transplantation Proceedings (24), 2973-2974.

Ledley, F. D. (1992). Somatic gene therapy in gastroenterology: approaches and applications. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (14), 328-37.

Soriano, H. E., Adams, R. M., Darlington, G., Finegold, M., Steffen, D. L., Ledley, F. D. (1992). Retroviral transduction of human hepatocytes and orthotopic engraftment in SCID mice after hepatocellular transplantation (HCT). Transplantation Proceedings (24), 3020-3021.

Ledley, F. D., Lovejoy Jr., F. H. (1992). Publication record of recent graduates from an academic, pediatric training program: assessing the development of academic physicians. Clinical and Investigative Medicine (15), 518-526.

Crane, A. M., Martin, L., Valle, D., Ledley, F. D. (1992). Phenotype of disease in patients with identical genotypes of mut- methylmalonic aciduria. Human Genetics (89), 259-64.

Ledley, F. D. (1992). Organ transplantation for genetic disease. Current Opinion in Pediatrics (4), 972-977.

Soriano, H. E., Gest, A., Bair, D., Vander-Straten, M., Lewis, D., Brandt, M., Finegold, M., Ledley, F. D. (1992). Hepatocellular transplantation (HCT) via the umbilical vein in fetal and newborn lamb. Transplantation Proceedings (24), 2964-2965.

Ledley, F. D., Soriano, H. E., O'Malley Jr., B. W., Darlington, L. D., Finegold, G. J. (1992). DiI as a marker for cellular transplantation into solid organs. BioTechniques (123), 581-587.

Ledley, F. D. (1992). Current Status of Somatic Gene Therapy. Growth, Genetics, & Hormones (8), 1-5.

Vaden, S. L., Wood, P. A., Ledley, F. D., Cornwell, P. E., Miller, R. T., Page, R. L. (1992). Cobalamin deficiency associated with methylmalonic acidemia in a cat. Journal of the Veterinary Medical Association (200), 1101-113.

Crane, A. M., Jansen, R., Andrews, E., Ledley, F. D. (1992). Cloning and expression of a mutant methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase with altered cobalamin affinity that causes mut- methylmalonic aciduria. Journal of Clinical Investigation (89), 385-391.

Ledley, F. D. (1991). The physician scientist's role in medical research and the mythology of the intellectual tradition. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (34), 410-420.

Ponder, K. P., Gupta, S., Leland, F., Darlington, G., Finegold, M., DeMayo, J., Ledley, F. D., Chowdhury, J. R., Woo, S. L. (1991). Mouse hepatocytes migrate to liver parenchyma and function indefinitely after intrasplenic transplantation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (88), 1217-21.

Shapira, S. K., Ledley, F. D., Rosenblatt, D. S., Levy, H. L. (1991). Ketoacidotic crisis as a presentation of "benign" methylmalonic acidemia.. Journal of Pediatrics (119), 80-84.

Ledley, F. D., Crane, A. M., Klish, K., May, G. (1991). Is there methylmalonyl CoA mutase in Aspergillus nidulans? Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (177), 1076-1081.

Hinds, M., Deisseroth, K., Mayes, J., Altschuler, E., Jansen, R., Ledley, F. D., Zwelling, L. A. (1991). Identification of a point mutation in the topoisomerase II gene from a human leukemia cell line containing an Amacrine-resistant form of topoisomerase II. Cancer Research (51), 4719-4731.

Ledley, F. D., Woo, S. L., Ferry, G. D., Whisennand, H. H., Brandt, M. L., Darlington, G. J., Demmler, G. J., Finegold, M. J., Pokorny, W. J., Rosenblatt, H., Schwartz, P., Moen, R. C., Anderson, W. F. (1991). Hepatocellular transplantation in acute hepatic failure and targeting genetic markers to hepatic cells. (Text of clinical protocol for gene transfer into hepatocytes approved by Human Gene Therapy Subcommittee, Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, and director of the NIH. Human Gene Therapy (2), 331-358.

Raff, M. L., Crane, A. M., Jansen, R., Ledley, F. D., Rosenblatt, D. S. (1991). Genetic characterization of a MUT locus mutation discriminating heterogeneity in muto and mut- methylmalonic aciduria by intra-allelic complementation. Journal of Clinical Investigation (87), 203-207.

Wilkemeyer, M. F., Crane, A. M., Ledley, F. D. (1991). Differential diagnosis of mut and cbl methylmalonic aciduria by DNA-mediated gene transfer in primary fibroblasts. Journal of Clinical Investigation (87), 915-918.

Ledley, F. D. (1991). Clinical considerations in the design of protocols for somatic gene therapy. Human Gene Therapy (2), 77-84.

Ledley, F. D. (1991). Clinical application of genotypic diagnosis for phenylketonuria: theoretical consideration. European Journal of Pediatrics (150), 752-756.

Nham, S. U., Wilkemeyer, M. F., Ledley, F. D. (1990). Structure of the human methylmalonyl CoA mutase (MUT) locus. Genomics (8), 710-716.

Wilkemeyer, M. F., Crane, A. M., Ledley, F. D. (1990). Primary structure and activity of murine methylmalonyl CoA mutase. The Biochemical Journal (271), 449-455.

Ledley, F. D. (1990). Perspectives on methylmalonic acidemia resulting from molecular cloning of methylmalonyl CoA mutase. Bioessays (12), 335-340.

Ledley, F. D., Jansen, R., Nham, S. U., Fenton, W. E., Rosenberg, L. E. (1990). Mutation eliminating mitochondrial leader sequence of methylmalonyl CoA mutase causes muto Methylmalonic Acidemia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (87), 3147-3150.

Ledley, F. D., Grenett, H. E., Dunbar, B. S., Woo, S. L. (1990). Mouse phenylalanine hydroxylase: homology and divergence from human phenylalanine hydroxylase. The Biochemical Journal (267), 399-406.

Sertic, J., Vincek, V., Ledley, F. D., Figueroa, F., Klein, J. (1990). Mapping of the L-methylmalonyl CoA mutase gene to mouse chromosome 17. Genomics (6), 560-564.

Threadgill, D. W., Wilkemeyer, M. F., Womack, J. E., Ledley, F. D. (1990). Localization of the murine methylmalonyl CoA mutase (Mut) locus on chromosome 17 by in situ hybridization. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics (53), 112-114.

Jansen, R., Ledley, F. D. (1990). Heterozygous mutations at the mut locus in fibroblasts with muto methylmalonic acidemia identified by PCR cDNA cloning. American Journal of Human Genetics (47), 808-814.

Ledley, F. D., Crane, A. M., Lumetta, M. (1990). Heterogenous alleles and expressionof methylmalonyl CoA mutase in mut methylmalonic acidemia. AmericanJournal of Human Genetics (46), 539-547.

Jansen, R., Ledley, F. D. (1990). Disruption of phase during PCR amplification and cloning of heterozygous target sequences. Nucleic Acids Research (19), 5153-56.

Sifers, R. N., Ledley, F. D., Reed-Fourquet, L., Ledbetter, D. H., Ledbetter, S. A., Woo, S. L. (1990). Complete cDNA sequence and chromosomal localization of mouse alpha1-antitrypsin. Genomics (6), 100-104.

Ledley, F. D. (1990). Clinical application of somatic gene therapy in inborn errors of metabolism. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease (13), 597-616.

Zwelling, L. A., Mayes, J., Deisseroth, K., Hinds, M., Grant, G., Pathak, S., Ledley, F. D., Vyas, R., Hittelman, W. (1990). A restriction fragment length polymorphism for human topoisomerase II: Its possible relationship to drug-resistance. Cancer Communications (2), 357-61.

Cheng, S. V., Martin, G. R., Nadeau, J. H., Haines, J. L., Bucan, M., Kozak, C. A., MacDonald, M. E., Lockyer, J. L., Ledley, F. D., Woo, S. L., Lehrach, H., Gilliam, T. C., Gusella, J. F. (1989). Synteny on mouse chromosome 5 of human loci linked to Huntington's Disease. Genomics (4), 419-426.

Jansen, R., Ledley, F. D. (1989). Production of high specific activity DNA probes by the polymerase chain reaction. Gene Analysis Techniques (6), 79-83.

Ledley, F. D., Koch, R., Beaudet, A., O'Brien, W. E., Bartos, D. P., Woo, S. L., Jew, K. (1989). Phenylalanine hydroxylase expression in the liver of a fetus with phenylketonuria. Genetic Counseling and the Outcome of Phenylketonuria. Journal of Pediatrics. 113:463-467, 113(3):463-8..

Jansen, R., Kalousek, F., Fenton, W., Rosenberg, L. E., Ledley, F. D. (1989). Cloning of full-length methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from a cDNA library using the polymerase chain reaction. Genomics (4), 198-205.

Peng, H., Armentano, D., Graham, L., Ledley, F. D., Woo, S. L. (1988). Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (85), 8146-8150.

Ledley, F. D., Lumetta, M., Nguyen, P. N., Kolhouse, J. F., Allen, R. A. (1988). Molecular cloning of L-methylmalonyl CoA mutase: gene transfer and analysis of mut cell lines. Proceedings of National Academy of Science (85), 3518-21.

Ledley, F. D., Lumetta, M. R., Zoghbi, H. Y., VanTuinen, P., Ledbetter, S. A., Ledbetter, D. H. (1988). Mapping of human methylmalonyl CoA mutase (MUT) locus on chromosome 6. American Journal of Human Genetics (42), 839-846.

Ledley, F. D., Ledbetter, S. A., Ledbetter, D. H., Woo, S. L. (1988). Localization of mouse phenylalanine hydroxylase locus on chromosome 10. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics (47), 125-126.

Zoghbi, H., O'Brien, W. E., Ledley, F. D. (1988). Linkage relationships of the human methylmalonyl CoA mutase to the HLA and D6S4 loci on chromosome 6. Genomics (3), 396-398.

McDonald, J. D., Cotton, R. G., Jennings, I., Ledley, F. D., Woo, S. L., Bode, V. C. (1988). Biochemical defect of the hph 1 mouse mutant is a deficiency of GTP cyclohydrolase activity. Journal of Neurochemistry (50), 655-657.

Ledley, F. D. (1987). Somatic gene therapy for human disease: background and prospects (Part I). J Pediatr. PMID: 3100752 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE], 110(2):167-74..

Ledley, F. D., Woo, S. L., Grenett, H. E. (1987). Structure of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Amino Acids in Health and Disease: New Perspectives. New Series. Alan R. Liss. UCLA symposia on molecular and cellular biology, 55, 267-284.

Lockyer, J., Cook, R. G., Milstein, S., Kaufman, S., Woo, S. L., Ledley, F. D. (1987). Structure and expression of human dihydropteridine reductase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (84), 3329-3333.

Ledley, F. D. (1987). Somatic gene therapy for human disease: background and prospects (Part I). J Pediatr. 1987 Feb; PMID: 3100752 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE], 110(2):167-74.

Ledley, F. D. (1987). Somatic gene therapy for human disease: a problem of eugenics? Trends in Genetics (3), 112-115.

Ledley, F. D., Hahn, T., Woo, S. L. (1987). Selection for phenylalanine hydroxylase activity in cells transformed with recombinant retrovirus. Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics (13), 145-154.

Ledley, F. D., Grenett, H. E., Bartos, D. P., Woo, S. L. (1987). Retroviral mediated transfer and expression of human alpha1-antitrypsin in cultured cells. Gene (61), 113-118.

Ledley, F. D., Darlington, G. J., Hahn, T., Woo, S. L. (1987). Retroviral gene transfer into primary hepatocytes: implications for genetic therapy of liver specific functions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (84), 5335-5339.

Ledley, F. D., Woo, S. L. (1987). Prospects for somatic gene therapy of phenylketonuria. Amino Acids in Health and Disease, New Perspectives. UCLA symposia on molecular and cellular biology New Series. Alan R. Liss, 55, 565-580.

MacDonald, M. E., Anderson, M. A., Lockyer, J. L., Milstein, S., Hobbs, W. J., Kaufman, S., Faryniarz, A. G., Ledley, F. D., Woo, S. L., Gusella, J. F. (1987). Physical and Genetic Localization of the quinonoid dihydropteridine reductase gene (QDPR) on the short arm of chromosome 4. Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics (13), 569-574.

Ledley, F. D., Woo, S. L. (1987). P chlorophenylalanine does not inhibit production of recombinant human phenylalanine hydroxylase in NIH3T3 cells or E. Coli. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (142), 302-308.

Bao, J. J., Sifers, R. N., Kidd, V. J., Ledley, F. D., Woo, S. L. (1987). Molecular evolution of serpins: homologous structure of the human alpha1 antichymotrypsin and alpha1 antitrypsin genes. Biochemistry (26), 7755-7759.

Guttler, F., DiLella, A. G., Ledley, F. D., Lidsky, A. S., Kwok, S. C., Marvit, J., Woo, S. (1987). Molecular Biology of Phenylketonuria. European Journal of Pediatrics (146(sup1)), 11-May.

Woo, S. L., DiLella, A. G., Marvit, J., Ledley, F. D. (1987). Molecular Basis of Phenylketonuria and recombinant DNA strategies for therapy. Enzyme (38), 207-213.

Woo, S. L., DiLella, A. G., Marvit, J., Ledley, F. D. (1987). Molecular basis of phenylketonuria and potential somatic gene therapy. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium in Quantitative Biology (51), 395-401.

Marvitt, J., DiLella, A. G., Brayton, K., Ledley, F. D., Robson, K. J., Woo, S. L. (1987). GT to AT transition at a splice donor site causes skipping of the preceding exon in phenylketonuria. Nucleic Acids Research (15), 5613-5628.

Grenett, H. E., Ledley, F. D., Reed, L. L., Woo, S. L. (1987). Full length cDNA for rabbit tryptophan hydroxylase: functional domains and evolution of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (84), 5530-5534.

Guttler, F., Lidsky, A. S., Ledley, F. D., DiLella, A. G., Sullivan, S. E., Woo, S. L. (1987). Correlation between polymorphic DNA haplotypes at phenylalanine hydroxylase locus and clinical phenotypes of phenylketonuria. Journal of Pediatrics (110), 68-71.

Ledley, F. D., Grenett, H. E., Woo, S. L. (1987). Biochemical characterization of recombinant human phenylalanine hydroxylase produced in E. Coli. Journal of Biological Chemistry (262), 2228-2233.

Ledley, F. D., Grenett, H. E., Bartos, D. P., vanTuinen, P., Ledbetter, D. H., Woo, S. L. (1987). Assignment of human tryptophan hydroxylase locus to chromosome 11: gene duplication and translocation in evolution of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics (13), 575-580.

Ledley, F. D., Grenett, H. E., McGinnis Shelnutt, M., Woo, S. L. (1986). Retroviral mediated gene transfer of human phenylalanine hydroxylase into NIH3T3 and hepatoma cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (83), 409-413.

DiLella, A. G., Kwok, S. C., Ledley, F. D., Marvit, J., Woo, S. L. (1986). Molecular structure and polymorphic map of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. Biochemistry (25), 743-749.

Ledley, F. D., Woo, S. L. (1986). Molecular basis of alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency and its potential therapy by gene transfer. Journal of Inherited and Metabolic Disease (9(suppl 1)), 85-91.

Ledley, F. D., Levy, H., Woo, S. L. (1986). Molecular analysis of the inheritance of phenylketonuria and mild hyperphenylalaninemia in families with both disorders. New England Journal of Medicine (314), 1276-1280.

Woo, S. L., Güttler, F., Ledley, F. D., Lidsky, F. D., Kwok, A. S., DiLella, S. C., Robson, K. J. (1985). The human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. Medical Genetics Past, Present, Future. Alan R. Liss, New York. , 123-138.

Kwok, S. C., Ledley, F. D., DiLella, A. G., Robson, K. J., Woo, S. L. (1985). Nucleotide sequence of a full length cDNA clone and amino acid sequence of human phenylalanine hydroxylase. Biochemistry (24), 556-561.

Ledley, F. D., DiLella, A., Woo, S. (1985). Molecular biology of phenylalanine hydroxylase and phenylketonuria. Trends in Genetics (1), 309-313.

Ledley, F. D., DiLella, A. G., Kwok, S. C., Woo, S. L. (1985). Homology between phenylalanine and tyrosine hydroxylases reveals common structural and functional domains. Biochemistry (24), 3389-3394.

Ledley, F. D., Grenett, H. E., DiLella, A. G., Kwok, S. C., Woo, S. L. (1985). Gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase. Science (228), 77-79.

Lidsky, A., Ledley, F. D., DiLella, A. G., Kwok, S. C., Daiger, S. P., Robson, K. J., Woo, S. L. (1985). Extensive restriction site polymorphisms in the human phenylalanine hydroxylase locus and application in prenatal diagnosis of phenylketonuria. American Journal of Human Genetics (37), 619-634.

DiLella, A. G., Ledley, F. D., Rey, F., Munich, A., Woo, S. L. (1985). Detection of phenylalanine hydroxylase messenger RNA in PKU liver biopsy samples from patients with phenylketonuria. Lancet (19), 160-161.

Wang, J. Y., Ledley, F. D., Goff, S., Lee, R., Groner, Y., Baltimore, D. (1984). The mouse c abl locus: Molecular cloning and characterization. Cell (36), 349-356.

Ledley, F. D., Levy, H. L., Shih, V. E., Benjamin, R., Mahoney, M. J. (1984). Benign methylmalonic aciduria. New England Journal of Medicine (311), 1015-1018.

Ledley, F. D. (1983). Recombinant DNA and the Copernican world view. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (26), 245-260 .

Ledley, F. D. (1982). Evolution and the human tail, a case report.. N Engl J Med.; PMID: 7070433 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE], 306(20):1212-5.

Habig, W. H., Ledley, F. D., Grollman, E. F., Meldolesi, M. F., Aloj, S. M., Hardegree, M. C., Kohn, L. D. (1978). Tetanus toxin interactions with the thyroid: decreased toxin binding to membranes from a thyroid tumor with a thyrotropin receptor defect and in vivo stimulation of thyroid function. Endocrinology (102), 844-851.

Ledley, F. D., Lee, G., Kohn, L. D., Habig, W. H., Hardegree, M. D. (1977). Tetanus toxin interactions with thyroid plasma membranes: implications for the structure and function of tetanus toxin receptors and potential pathophysiological significance. Journal of Biological Chemistry (252), 4029-4055.

Meldolesi, M. F., Fishman, P. H., Aloj, S. M., Ledley, F. D., Lee, G., Bradley, R. M., Brady, R. O., Kohn, L. D. (1977). Separation of the glycoprotein and ganglioside components of thyrotropin receptor activity in plasma membranes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (75), 581-588.

Mullin, B. R., Lee, G., Ledley, F. D., Winand, R. J., Kohn, L. D. (1976). Thyrotropin interactions with human fat cell membrane preparations and the finding of a soluble thyrotropin binding component. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (69), 55-62.

Mullin, B. R., Fishman, P. H., Lee, G., Aloj, S. M., Ledley, F. D., Winand, R. J., Kohn, L. D., Brady, R. O. (1976). Thyrotropin ganglioside interactions and their relationship to the structure and function of thyrotropin receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (73), 842-846.

Ledley, F. D., Mullin, B. R., Lee, G., Aloj, S. M., Fishman, P. H., Hunt, L. T., Dayhoff, M. O., Kohn, L. D. (1976). Sequence similarity between cholera toxin and the glycoprotein hormones: implications for structure activity relationships and the mechanism of action. Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications (69), 852-859.

Ledley, F. D., Wilson, J. B. (1974). Computer analysis of ultrasound cardiograms. Computers in Biology and Medicine (4), 27-41.

Book Chapters
Ledley, F. D, Oches, E. A. (2013). Business Education in an age of science and technology. In Everett, D., and Hardy, G. (Eds.), Shaping the Future of Business Education: Relevance, Rigor, and Life Preparation. . Palgrave Macmillan (link)

Ledley, F. D. (2009). Visions of a Source of Wonder. In Proctor, J. (Eds.), Envisioning Nature, Science, and Religion (pp. 379). Pennsylvannia, USA: . Templeton Press (link)

Ledley, F. D. (1994). Pharmacokinetic Considerations In the Use of Genes as Pharmaceuticals. In Wolff, J.A. (Eds.), Direct Gene Therapy (pp. 235-244). New York: . Birkhauser

Ledley, F. D. (1994). Hepatic Gene Therapy.. In Cheng, P. (Eds.), Somatic Gene Therapy (pp. 61-72). New York: . CRC Press

Ledley, F. D. (1990). Prospects for somatic gene therapy in the management of inborn errors of metabolism. In Fernandes, J., Bremer, H.J., Saudubray, J.M. (Eds.), Inherited metabolic disease. Diagnosis and treatment. (pp. 671-680). Springer-Verlag

Leadlay, P, Ledley, F. D. (1990). Primary sequence homology between methylmalonyl CoA mutase from Propionibacterium shermanii and Homo sapiens. In Linnell, J.C., Bhatt, H.R. (Eds.), Cobalamin '88, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Biomedicine and Physiology of Vitamin B12 (pp. 343-354). London: . Cobalamin '88, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Biomedicine and Physiology of Vitamin B12. Children's Medical Charity

Ledley, F. D. (1990). Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Human Methylmalonyl CoA Mutase. Cobalamin '88, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Biomedicine and Physiology of Vitamin B12. In Linnell, J.C., Bhatt, H.R. (Eds.), Cobalamin '88, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Biomedicine and Physiology of Vitamin B12 (pp. 333-342). London: . Children's Medical Charity

Armentano, D, Peng, H, MacKenzie-Graham, L, Shen, M, Seh, , Ledley, F. D, Darlington, G. J, Woo, S. L. (1989). Retroviral-mediated gene transfer of human PAH into mouse primary hepatocytes.. In A.L. Beaudet, R. Mulligan, I.M. Verma (Eds.), Gene Transfer and Gene Therapy (pp. 355-363.). New York: . Alan R. Liss

Ledley, F. D. (1989). Molecular Genetic Studies in Methylmalonic acidemia. UCLA symposium on gene transfer in animals.. In A.L. Beaudet, R. Mulligan, I.M. Verma (Eds.), Gene Transfer and Gene Therapy (pp. 335-344). New York: . Alan R. Liss

Ledley, F. D. (1989). Human gene therapy . Biotechnology, a comprehensive treatise (pp. 399-461.). Weinheim: . VCH Verlagsgesellschaft.

Ledley, F. D, Woo, S. L. (1988). Reconsidering the genetics of phenylketonuria. Dietary Phenylalanine and Brain Function. . In Wurtman, R.J. and Ritter-Walker, E. (Eds.), Dietary Phenylalanine and Brain Function (pp. 228-237). Boston/Basel: . Birkhauser

Ledley, F. D, Woo, S. L, DiLella, A. G. (1986). Molecular biology of phenylalanine hydroxylase and phenylketonuria. In Y. Tsukata (Eds.), Molecular Genetics in Developmental Neurobiology (pp. 201-214). Tokyo: . Japan Scientific Societies Press (JSSP). The Ninth International Symposium on Brain Sciences. Molecular Genetics in Developmental Neurobiology.

DiLella, A. G, Ledley, F. D, Woo, S. L. (1985). Prenatal Diagnosis and Carrier Detection of Phenylketonuria by Gene Mapping. In H. Koprowski, S. Ferrone, and A. Albertini (Eds.), Biotechnology in Diagnostics (pp. 295-307). Rome: . Biotechnology in Diagnostics. Elsevier Science Publishers

Ledley, F. D, Woo, S. L, Güttler, F. (1985). Cloning and expression of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. In Bickel, H., Wachtel, U. (Eds.), Inherited Diseases of Amino Acid Metabolism (pp. 37-50). Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, New York.

Ledley, F. D. (1984). Metabolic disease. In Graef, J.W., Cone, T.E. (Eds.), Manual of Pediatric Therapeutics, third edition (pp. 341-350). Boston, MA: . Little, Brown and Company

Kohn, L. D, Consiglio, E, DeWolf, M. J, Grollman, E. F, Ledley, F. D, Lee, F. D, Morris, N. P. (1980). Thyrotropin receptors and gangliosides. Structure and Function of Gangliosides.. In Svennerholm, L., Mardel, P., Dreyfus, H., Urban, P.F. (Eds.), Structure and Function of Gangliosides (pp. 487-504). New York: . Advances in Experimental Medicine/Plenum Press

Hunt, L. D, Ledley, F. D, Dayhoff, M. O. (1979). Hormones and active peptides. In Dayhoff, M.O. (Eds.), Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure. Washington, D.C.: . National Biomedical Research Foundation

Kohn, L. D, Lee, G, Grollman, E. F, Ledley, F. D, Mullin, B. R, Aloj, S. M, Meldolesi, M. F. (1977). Membrane glycolipid and their relationship to the structure and function of cell surface receptors for glycoprotein hormones, bacterial toxins, and interferon. . In Harmon, R.E. (Eds.), Cell surface carbohydrate chemistry. . Academic Press, San Francisco.

Book Reviews
Ledley, F. D. (1993). [Review of the book review of: Ahrens A.H. "The Crisis in Clinical Research"]. The American Journal of Human Genetics.

Ledley, F. D. (1993). [Review of the book review of: Kevles and Hood "The Code of Codes: Scientific and Social Issues in the Human Genome Project"]. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Ledley, F. D. (1992). [Review of the book review of: Emery and Rimoin, "Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics"]. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Ledley, F. D. (1992). [Review of the book review of: Friedmann, T (ed.) "Therapy of Genetic Disease" and Desnick, R. (ed) "Treatment for Genetic Disease"]. American Journal of Human Genetics.

Ledley, F. D. (1991). [Review of the book review of: Duster, T. "Backdoor to Eugenics"]. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Ledley, F. D. (1990). [Review of the book review of: Mange, A.P., Mange, E.J. "Genetics: human aspects"]. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Ledley, F. D. (1989). [Review of the book review of: Nora, J.J., Fraser, F.C. "Medical Genetics, principles and practice"]. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Ledley, F. D. (1988). [Review of the book review of: Childs, B., Holtzman, N.A., Kazazian, H., Valle, D. "Molecular Genetics in Medicine"]. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Ledley, F. D. (1988). [Review of the book review of: Levitan, M. "Textbook of Human Genetics"]. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Ledley, F. D. (1988). [Review of the book review of: Weatherall, D.J. "The New Genetics and Clinical Practice", 2nd ed]. American Scientist.

Ledley, F. D. (1986). [Review of the book review of Epstein, C.J. "The Consequences of Chromosome Imbalance: Principles, mechanisms, and models"]. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Ledley, F. D. (1986). [Review of the book review of: Chaganti, R.S.K. and German, J. "Genetics and Clinical Oncology"]. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Ledley, F. D. (1985). [Review of the book review of: DeGrouchy, J., Turleau, C. "Clinical Atlas of Human Chromosomes"]. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Ledley, F. D. (1985). [Review of the book review of: Kevles, D. "In the Name of Eugenics"]. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Ledley, F. D., Salsbury, J. L. (2013). "Quality management in educational organizations; building from the ground up." Presented at the AAC&U's eneral Education and Assessment: A Sea Change in Student Learning., Boston, Network for Academic Renewal.

Ledley, F. D. (2012). "Sputnik's Child." Presented at the Biotechnology Industry Organization's BIO International Exposition, Boston.

Ledley, F. D. (2012). "Sputnik's Child." Presented at the Space Foundation's National Space Symposium, Colorado Springs.

Fishman, G. P., Ledley, F. D., Launius, R. (2012). The Sputnik Moment - Then and Now. Presented at the Association of American Colleges and Universities's SHARED FUTURES / DIFFICULT CHOICES, Washington, D.C..

Goldman, M., Kirsch, G. E., Ledley, F. D. (2011). "Innovation and Design: Making Room in a Crowded Curriculum for the Big Questions." Presented at the Associaton of American Colleges and Universities's Arts & Humanities: Toward a Flourishing State?, Providence, Rhode Island.

Oches, E. A., Szymanski, D. W., Davis, P. T., Ledley, F. D. (2010). Integrating Earth and environmental science into a business curriculum toward enhanced workforce science literacy. Presented at the Geological Society of America's Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, CO.

Artistic and Professional Performances and Exhibits

Shpilkes Klezmer Band - Clarinet, Alto Clarinet, Drums - Shpilkes Klezmer Band performs the living melodies of traditional Yiddish and Sephardic music. "Shpilkes“ is a Yiddish word for "nervous energy". That's Shpilkes Klezmer Band - hyperactive and ready to play. www.myspace.com/shpilkes

Service

Public Service
Board Member for Hillel Council of New England - Present